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"New England" is the area where I live now.
Read everything about it right here...

When my hostfamily first called me, last summer, my hostmom told me they are living in New Hampshire in the area called `New England`. I`ve never heard of that before (or maybe never realized it). So I started to search the internet and books about the area to find out a lot of things.
It seemed like there is a lot to tell.
Now, I`m living in New Hampshire for over 7 month and visit other parts of New England.
And to get more familiar with this area and everything about it, I decided to write my paper about the area of my Au-pair year: NEW ENGLAND


New England is a region of the United States located in the northeastern corner of the country. It consists of the states of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont.
The region was inhabited by indigenous people when English Pilgrims, fleeing religious persecution in Europe arrived nearly four hundred years ago, at the beginning of the 17th century. In the 18th century, New England was one of the first North American British colonies to demonstrate ambitions of independence from the British Crown, although it would later oppose the War of 1812 between the United States and Britain. In the 19th century, it played a prominent role in the movement to abolish slavery in the United States, became a source of some of the first examples of American literature and philosophy, the first region to organize free public education, and showed the first signs of the effects of the Industrial Revolution in North America.
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A person from New England is referred to as a `New Englander`. Together, the Mid Atlantic and New England regions are referred to as the Northeastern region of the United States. New England is also a part of the greater U.S.- Canada Atlantic Northeast region.


HISTORY, GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

Algonquian-speaking native people including the Abenaki, the Penobscot the Wampanoag and others. Before the arrival of Europeans in the region, the Western Abenakis mostly inhabited New Hampshire and Vermont, but also inhabited parts of Québec and western Maine. Their principal town was Norridgewock in present-day Maine. The Penobscot were settled along the Penebscot River in Maine. The Wampanoag occupied southeastern Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and the islands of Martha`s Vineyard and Nantucket.
New England's geography is the result of retreating ice sheets that shaped the landscape thousands of years ago, leaving behind long rolling hills, mountains, and a jagged coastline. The seacoast of the region, extending from southwestern Connecticut to northeastern Maine, is dotted with lakes, hills, swamps, and sandy beaches, especially in Cape Cod. Farther from the coast are higher elevations, including mountain ranges and rocky hills, which extend through Connecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine. These are a part of the Appalachian Mountains and Mount Washington at 1,917 m (6,288 ft), in New Hampshire's White Mountains is the highest peak in the northeast United States. It is also the site of the highest recorded wind speed on Earth. Vermont's Green Mountains which become the Berkshire Hills in western Massachusetts, are smaller than the White Mountains. Valleys in the region include the Connecticut River Valley and the Merrimack Valley.
The region has many rivers and streams. The longest is the Connecticut River which flows from northeastern New Hampshire for 655 km (407 mi) until it empties into the Long Island Sound Lake Champlain, between Vermont and New York, is the largest lake in the region, followed by Moosehead Lake (Maine), Lake Winnepesaukee (New Hampshire), Quabbin Reservoir (Massachusetts), and Candlewood Lake(Connecticut).
The climate in New England is known for its unpredictability, and it varies throughout the region. Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, in the north of the region, have a humid continental short summer climate, with cooler summers and long, cold winters. Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island, in the south, have a humid continental long summer climate, with hot summers and cold winters. Fall in New England is known for its bright and colorful foliage which comes earlier than in other states, and is an important tourist season. Springs are generally wet and cloudy. The average rainfall for most of the region is from 1,000 to 1,500 mm (40 to 60 in) a year, although the northern parts of Vermont and Maine see slightly less, from 500 to 1,000 mm (20 to 40 in). Snowfall can often exceed 2,500 mm (100 in) annually. As a result, the mountains of Vermont and New Hampshire are popular destinations in the winter, with numerous commercial ski resorts.

As of 2000, the total population of New England was 13,922,517. In 1910, just 6,552,681 people lived in New England.
If New England were one state, its population would rank 5th in the nation, behind Florida The total area, at 70,054.3756 sq mi (181,440 sq km), would rank 20th, behind North Dakota.

Southern New England
Three quarters of New England's population and most of its major cities are concentrated in its three southernmost states, Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island. Their combined population density is over 600/sq mi. The most populous state is Massachusetts, and the most populous city is Massachusetts' political and cultural capital, Boston, Western Massachusetts and Northwestern Connecticut are less densely populated than the rest of Southern New England.

Coastal New England
The coastline is more urban than western New England, which is typically rural, even in urban states like Massachusetts. This characteristic of the region's population is due mainly to historical factors; the original colonists settled mostly on the coastline of Massachusetts Bay The only New England state without access to the Atlantic Ocean Vermont, is also the least-populated. After nearly 400 years, the region still maintains, for the most part, its historical population layout.
New England's coast is dotted with urban centers, such as Portland, Portsmouth, Boston, New Bedford, Fall River, Newport, Providence, New Haven, Bridgeport and Stamford as well as smaller cities, like Newburyport, Gloucester, Biddeford, Bath, Rockland and New London. The smaller fishing towns, like Gloucester, are popular tourist attractions, as they tend to retain their historical character, and often have colorful pasts.
Cape Cod, the signature hook-shaped peninsula of Massachusetts, also a popular tourist attraction, is lined with sandy beaches and dotted with bed and breakfast tourist lodgings. The picturesque and rugged coast of Maine is best known for its beauty and for lobster. New Hampshire, which has the shortest coastline of any coastal state, is home to Hampton Beach, also frequented by visitors to the region.
Southern New England forms an integral part of the BosWash megalopolis a conglomeration of urban centers that spans from Boston to Washington D.C.. The region includes three of the four most densely populated states in the United States; only New Jersey has a higher population density than the states of Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and Connecticut.
The Boston metropolitan area which includes parts of southern New Hampshire, has a total population of approximately 5.8 million. The largest cities by population in New England (2000 data) are:

1.Boston, Massachusetts: 589,141
2.Providence, Rhode Island: 173,618
3.Worcester, Massachusetts: 172,648
4.Springfield, Massachusetts: 152,082
5.Bridgeport, Connecticut: 139,529
6.Hartford, Connecticut 124,558
7.New Haven, Connecticut: 123,626
8.Stamford, Connecticut: 117,083
9.Waterbury, Connecticut: 107,271
10.Manchester, New Hampshire:107,006
11.Lowell, Massachusetts: 105,167

During the 20th century, urban expansion has made the New York metropolitan area, an important economic influence on southwestern Connecticut, due to its ready access to Manhattan by both commuter railroad and highway commuters.


ECONOMY

Several factors contribute to the uniquenesses of the New England economy. The region is geographically isolated from the rest of the United States, and is relatively small. It has a climate and a supply of natural resources such as granite, lobster, and codfish, that are different from many other parts of the country. Its population is concentrated on the coast and in its southern states, and its residents have a strong regional identity. America's earliest textile industry developed at sources of water power such as in Lowell and Lawrence, Massachusetts, Manchester, New Hampshire, and Woonsocket, Rhode Island but have long since departed due to high operating costs there. Exports consist mostly of industrial products, including specialized machines and
weaponry, built by the region's educated workforce. About half of the region's exports consist of industrial and commercial machinery, such as computers and electronic and electrical equipment. This, when combined with instruments, chemicals, and transportation equipment, makes up about three-quarters of the region's exports. Granite is quarried at Barre, Vermont, guns made at Springfield, Massachusetts, boats at Groton, Connecticut and Bath, Maine, and hand tools at Turners Falls, Massachusetts. Insurance is a driving force in and around Hartford, Connecticut.
New England also exports food products, ranging from fish to lobster, cranberries, Maine potatoes, and maple syrup. The service industry is also highly important, including tourism, education, financial and insurance services, plus architectural, building, and construction services. The U.S. Department of Commerce has called the New England economy a microcosm for the entire United States economy.

As of May 2006, the unemployment rate in New England was 4.5%, below the national average. Vermont, with the lowest of the six states, had a rate of 3%. The highest was Rhode Island, with 5.5%. The metropolitan statistical area (MSA) with the lowest rate, 2.5%, was Burlington-South Burlington, in Vermont; the MSA with the highest rate, 7.9%, was Lawrence-Methuen-Salem, in Massachusetts and southern New Hampshire.

New England is home to two of the ten poorest cities (by percentage living below the poverty line) in the United States: the state capital cities of Providence, Rhode Island and Hartford, Connecticut. These cities, and others in the region, because of their age have struggled with the transition from compact, pre-1950 settlement and industrial patterns to the contemporary, more suburban and spread-out patterns of residential and industrial living and decline of American industry.

With its rocky soil and climate, New England is not a strong agricultural region. Some New England states, however, are ranked highly among U.S. states for particular areas of production. Maine is ranked ninth for aquaculture, Vermont fifteenth for dairy products, and Connecticut and Massachusetts seventh and eleventh for tobacco, respectively. Cranberries are grown in the Cape Cod - Plymouth area, and blueberries in Maine. As of 2005, the inflation-adjusted combined GSPs of the six states of New England was $623.1 billion, with Massachusetts contributing the most, and Vermont the least.


CULTURE

New England has a history of shared heritage and culture primarily shaped by waves of immigration from Europe. A cultural divide, however, also exists between urban New Englanders living along the densely-populated coastline and rural New Englanders in western Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine, where population density is low.
Connecticut is a cultural paradox, compared to the other states in the region. The southwestern part of the state is largely suburban dotted with larger cities Bridgeport, New Haven, Stamford and Danbry, and as part of the New York metropolitan area, is culturally tied more with New York City than the rest of the New England region. The remainder of the state, however, is culturally similar to neighboring Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Residents of this area are often referred to as “Swamp Yankees” An example of Connecticuts's cultural dichotomy can be found in residents' allegiance to sports teams. Western Connecticut residents tend to support New York teams, unlike the rest of the state who tend to be loyal to Boston teams.Television broadcasts in Hartford and New Haven typically give equal coverage to sports teams from both Boston and New York.
Cultural roots
The first European colonists of New England were focused on maritime affairs such as whaling and fishing rather than more continental inclinations such as surplus farming.. One of the older American regions, New England has developed a distinct cuisine, dialect, architecture and government. New England cuisine is known for its emphasis on seafood and dairy, clam chowder, lobster, and other products of the sea are among some of the region's most popular foods, such as New Haven's famous white clam pizza.


SOCIAL ACTIVITIES AND MUSIC

Bars and pubs, especially those with Irish themes are popular social venues. Closer to Boston, musicians from Ireland often tour pubs, playing traditional irish folk music, usually with a singer, a fiddler and a guitarist. This area also has thrieving hardcore, punk and indie rock music scenes. Surfrock was pioneered by Dick Dale of Quincy, Massachusetts and the Pixies of Boston influenced the grunge movement of the 1990s. Some people from south Boston mix hardcore and punk music with Irish music in a style known as Celtic Punk.
Boston and New Haven have had a big influence on Ska musicians from the Northeast.In much of rural New England, particularly Maine, Acadian and Quebecois culture also dominate the region's music and dance. Contra Dancing and country square dancing are popular throughout New England, usually backed by live Irish, Acadian or other folk music.
Traditional knitting, quilting and rug hooking circles in rural New England have become less common; church, sports and town government are more typical social activities.
In much of rural New England, particularly Maine, Acadian and Quebecois culture also dominate the region's music and dance. Contra Dancing and country square dancing are popular throughout New England, usually backed by live Irish, Acadian or other folk music.
Traditional knitting, quilting and rug hooking circles in rural New England have become less common; church, sports and town government are more typical social activities.

I know there is a lot more to tell about New England, but I can`t tell everything about it. So I think I picked the important and for me most interesting things about it.
It was really interesting for me to learn more about the area I live now. With the work on the paper I read a lot about New England and really liked to spend my time with that.




PAPER FROM: SABRINA GROTH,
APRIL 2007, EXETER, NEW HAMPSHIRE



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